Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate, the gland that produces the liquid part of sperm. This is the most common disease of the reproductive system in mature men. Acute bacterial prostatitis is a relatively rare disease, its frequency does not exceed three percent of all inflammatory processes in the prostate.
Causes of acute prostatitis
The main cause of acute prostatitis in men is bacteria, some of which are part of the normal microbiota of the body, that is, they constantly live on the skin, in the intestine. Once in the tissues and ducts of the prostate, they cause acute inflammation.
Infection can enter the prostate in two ways:
- ascending canalicular - bacteria with urethritis, cystitis, after cystoscopy enter the prostate.
- hematogenous - microbes enter the prostate gland with the bloodstream from distant foci of acute and chronic infection - boils, carbuncles, sinusitis, diseased teeth and tonsils.
In addition to bacteria, stagnation of the secretion of the prostate gland and stagnation of venous blood, which develop during irregular sexual activity with rare sexual intercourse, with prolonged restrictions of mobility, especially in a sitting position and wearing tight underwear, are important.
The gland consists of two sections: the follicles, in which secretion is produced, and the excretory ducts, through which the liquid part of the sperm enters the urethra. Depending on which part of the prostate is inflamed, there are different forms of acute prostatitis in men, which are treated with different methods.
Signs of acute prostatitis
Symptoms of acute prostatitis depend on the form and severity of the inflammatory process. Doctors distinguish three forms:
- catarrhal.The main symptoms are urination disorder. The excretory ducts become inflamed, the prostate enlarges and blocks the urethra, as a result of which urination is prolonged, accompanied by pain and burning sensation in the urethra. There are nocturnal impulses, the patient suffers from insomnia.
- follicular.With the further progression of the process, the tissues of the follicles begin to rot. Urinary disorders are accompanied by pain in the perineum, which radiates to the anus, the temperature rises to 38 degrees.
- parenchymal.The follicles continue to rot, a large number of small abscesses are formed. Difficulty urinating, it becomes acutely painful, pain appears during the act of defecation. The temperature rises to forty, in the groin, perineum, sacrum - sharp pains.
The urologist makes a diagnosis based on a comprehensive study, which includes:
- Rectal examination.The urologist inserts a finger into the patient's anus and feels the gland, determines the increase in volume and pain, and concludes that there is an inflammatory process.
- General urine analysis. In urinalysis, leukocytes, blood, bacteria and proteins are determined. These are non-specific indicators of urinary tract inflammation; they cannot be used to conclude on a specific site of inflammation.
- Bacteriological analysis of urine.Culturing urine for sterility allows you to isolate the microbes that caused the inflammation, determine their type, resistance and sensitivity to antibiotics.
- Ultrasound of the prostate.Ultrasound examination shows a change in size, indicates nodes, formations, abscesses.
- MRI or CT scan of the pelvis.It is done in preparation for surgery or for differentiation with prostate cancers.
- Blood test for PSA.Prostate specific antigen is a protein secreted by the prostate. Its content increases in diseases of the prostate gland: prostatitis, adenoma and malignant tumors of the prostate. The analysis is carried out for the differential diagnosis with tumors, since the PSA values in cancer are much higher than in prostatitis.
Complications of acute prostatitis
If the correct treatment of acute prostatitis is not started in time, this can lead to the development of the following complications:
- Prostate abscess.If prostatitis is not treated, sooner or later the small abscesses merge into a large one, which is called an abscess. This complication is treated only promptly, by opening the prostate and thoroughly cleaning the pus from there.
- Inflammation of the paraprostatic venous plexus.Inflammation of the prostate can spread to surrounding veins. The large number of bacteria that are released into the bloodstream will lead to a systemic inflammatory response - sepsis - which can be fatal.
- Paraprostatitis.It occurs when an abscess ruptures into the surrounding prostate tissue. Only deal promptly.
- Transition to a chronic form.Acute prostatitis without treatment becomes chronic, which requires a course of treatment lasting several years. Fifty percent of patients with chronic prostatitis develop mental disorders that require correction with antidepressants and tranquilizers.
What to do with acute prostatitis
A patient with an acute prostatitis attack needs urgent hospitalization. Treatment of acute prostatitis should take place in the hospital and includes antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and restorative agents.
Antibacterial therapy includes broad-spectrum agents and is prescribed for long periods - from fifteen to thirty days, until the complete destruction of bacteria. For acute prostatitis, doctors usually use the following antibiotics and antibacterial drugs:
- fluoroquinolones- levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin;
- cephalosporins- cefotaxime, ceftriaxone.
In addition to antibiotics for acute prostatitis, the following drugs are used:
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac) - helps relieve pain;
- bioregulatory peptides (prostate extract, vitaprost, prostatilen) - used in the form of suppositories. The prostate not only produces the liquid part of the sperm, but also performs a regulatory function by releasing hormones. Suppositories help to compensate for the lack of hormones and avoid complications associated with it.
Do not self-medicate: it is dangerous! Do not use folk remedies such as prostate massage - secretions and pus, once in the blood, cause blood poisoning, which can be fatal. If you find signs of acute prostatitis, immediately call an ambulance or see a doctor.
Sex with acute prostatitis is contraindicated. First, severe pain in the perineum and sacrum, high temperature, have absolutely no sexual intercourse. Second, the partner has the risk of getting a sexually transmitted infection.
Prevention of acute prostatitis
Acute prostatitis is much easier to prevent than to cure. Just look at a few important points:
- conducting thorough personal hygiene, treat cystitis and urethritis on time;
- having sex regularly to avoid stagnation of prostate secretion;
- avoid sexually transmitted diseases;
- treat boils, carbuncles in time, monitor the health of the teeth;
- wearing loose cotton underwear;
- get enough physical activity to avoid stasis in the prostate veins.
Treatment of prostatitis should be carried out under the close supervision of a doctor. The specialist develops an examination program, draws up an individual diagnostic scheme.
It is important to consult a doctor at the first suspicion of a disease. Lack of attention to symptoms or self-medication can significantly complicate the situation. Timely and professional medical assistance will help to cope with the disease and prevent complications.
Symptoms and causes of prostatitis
As a rule, speaking of the treatment of prostatitis, they mean the chronic stage of the pathology. This is due to the fact that the acute phase lasts only a few days and often does not cause serious concern for a man. As a result, the inflammatory process becomes chronic, and the treatment of prostatitis is significantly delayed.
Acute prostatitis can be recognized by the following signs:
- pain in the perineum and scrotum,
- cramps in the lower abdomen
- weakening of the erection,
- lack of voluntary erection in the morning.
These symptoms can appear all at once or one at a time. After a few days, they disappear or decrease significantly. This is precisely the danger of the disease. In the absence of qualified assistance, prostatitis becomes chronic. This phase is characterized by:
- increased urge to urinate,
- a decrease in the amount of urine excreted,
- weakening of the flow when urinating,
- erectile dysfunction,
- pain in the small pelvis, perineum.
Each of these symptoms is a reason to see a doctor. In our clinic, a urologist on Leninsky will accurately determine the cause of the disease, prescribe effective treatment.
Identifying the etiology of prostatitis is one of the most important tasks in choosing a therapeutic course. There are several main causes of the disease:
- sexually transmitted infections - chlamydia, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis and others,
- bacteria - enter the prostate gland through the urethra, with the flow of blood or lymph,
- hypothermia - causes inflammation of the prostate, which, as in other cases, quickly becomes chronic.
All the tests necessary to identify the causes and treatment of prostatitis can be performed in our clinic. The examination program is done individually by the urologist.
Diagnosis of the disease
Among the mandatory methods for diagnosing prostatitis are:
- general urinalysis,
- microscopic examination of the secretion of the prostate,
- Ultrasound of the prostate gland.
In accordance with the individual clinical picture, the urologist can prescribe additional examinations. If you suspect the sexually transmitted nature of prostatitis, it is recommended to test Leninsky Prospekt for sexually transmitted diseases. Based on the results of a complete diagnosis, the specialist draws up a treatment regimen for prostatitis.
Treatment of prostatitis is often carried out by conservative methods. Antibiotic therapy forms the basis. With the help of antibiotics, pathogens are eliminated, inflammation of the prostate is removed. Modern drugs penetrate well into the tissue of the prostate gland, eliminating the main cause of the pathology. Also, the doctor can prescribe alpha-blockers, hormones, muscle relaxants.
Another effective technique is prostate massage. It restores the patency of the ducts, improves blood circulation in the prostate and increases its tone. It is used most often in the treatment of bacterial prostatitis, the presence of pelvic pain syndrome.
The duration of the course depends on the individual picture of the disease. It is important that the treatment of prostatitis in the clinic is aimed not at relieving the symptoms, but at eliminating the root cause of the pathology. This approach allows you to get rid of a chronic disease and prevent relapses.